The Hellenistic ‘Fthiotides Thebes’ were probably created around the second half of the 4th Century B.C. and were previously occupied by the ancient city of Pyrassos.
The name was shared by two ancient towns in the area of Magnesia, one near the village which is today known as Mikrothives, and the other near the sea, in the port area of ancient Pyrassos, where Nea Anchialos lies today. Excavations in Mikrothives revealed the former existence of important private and public buildings with marble statues and mosaics, public streets, water reservoirs and baths, which are dated between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD.
Very important findings can be considered; the big three-aisled basilicas with a vestibule, courtyard and buildings, which were decorated with mosaic floors, many of which are preserved in good condition thanks to the efforts of the archaeologists. The architectural remains of these churches, which we see today in the archaeological area of Nea Anchialos, along with the large number of objects found in the excavations, prove the great acme of the area. Overall, nine churches have been found during excavations here such as those of St. Demetrius, Elpidios Basilica and Church of the Archieureus Peter. There’s also a 7th-century cemetery church lying beyond the city walls.