The most important life form in this wetland are the birds; some 215 species of birds, which nest, winter or stop here during their migration, have been recorded here. Herons are the most typical amongst these species. Other bird species include egrets, owls, spoonbills and glossy ibis (which are endangered), cormorants, terns, twelve species of ducks, geese, raptors, and more. Two other species of birds that are endangered are the Dalmatian pelican and the curlew.
Also in Aliakmonas there are 33 species of freshwater fish, such as the endemic mafrotsironi (Rutilus Macedonicus), as well as frogs, turtles, water snakes, and the bass, mullet, and eels. The mix of sweet and salty water instigates the growth of shellfish and especially mussels, which in this region accounts for about 90% of total production in Greece.
More than 500 different species of plants adorn the area, with their vibrant colors and aromas. Some of the most characteristic species found here are the sea lily (Pancratium maritimum), the kompochorto (Ephedra distachya), the salvinia (Salvinia natans), and the azole (Azolla filiculoides).